Daily Vocabulary from ‘The Hindu’: December 23, 2023

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Daily Vocabulary Words: List of Daily Used Words
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Our endeavour here is straightforward: highlighting important daily vocabulary words, you would encounter in The Hindu. This is your repository of commonly used words; essentially, we are posting a list of daily used words. Hence, this has significant practical application as it teaches you words that are commonly used in a leading publication such as The Hindu.
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WORD-1: Legitimacy

CONTEXT: What they are striking at is the legitimacy of the liberal, democratic process in which elections lead to certain winners.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Legitimacy is like when someone has the right to do something or be in charge, and everyone thinks it’s fair and correct. For example, when a teacher is in charge of a class, it’s legitimate because they are supposed to be the teacher.

MEANING: The state of being lawful or fair (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: luh-jit-uh-muh-see

SYNONYMS: Validity, Authenticity, Legality, Rightfulness, Justification

1. The election’s legitimacy was questioned due to voting irregularities.
2. She challenged the legitimacy of the new law.
3. His claim to the throne had little legitimacy.
4. The legitimacy of her argument was undeniable.

WORD-2: Exerting

CONTEXT: Left-wing populists would argue that the masses, the general public, the working class were not being allowed to influence public policy because the rich, the political elites, dominated by capitalist interests, were exerting undue influence on the system.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Exerting is like using all your strength or effort to do something. Imagine trying to push a heavy sofa across the room; you’re exerting yourself to move it.

MEANING: Applying or using force, effort, or influence (verb).

PRONUNCIATION: ig-zur-ting

SYNONYMS: Applying, Utilizing, Exercising, Deploying, Wielding

1. He was exerting a lot of energy to lift the heavy boxes.
2. The company is exerting pressure on its competitors.
3. She’s exerting her influence to get the project approved.
4. The team exerted themselves to win the game.

WORD-3: Inclusion

CONTEXT: But the right-wing version in the world now also asks a powerful question, which is whether the liberal, democratic project of inclusion is legitimate.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Inclusion means making sure everyone is included or a part of something. It’s like inviting every kid in your class to your birthday party so no one feels left out.

MEANING: The act of including or being included within a group or structure (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: in-kloo-zhuhn

SYNONYMS: Incorporation, Integration, Involvement, Participation, Inclusion

1. The new policy promotes inclusion in the workplace.
2. Inclusion in the team made her feel valued.
3. The program is designed for the inclusion of all students.
4. Her inclusion in the list of nominees was unexpected.

WORD-4: Decimation

CONTEXT: In Pacific Affairs, I argue with Seyed Hossein Zarhani that there has been a systematic decimation of public institutions in three ways: one, by interpreting rules differently; two, by changing rules incrementally, such as by bringing in a Bill (in India) regulating the appointment of the Chief Election Commissioner

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Decimation is like when a lot of things are destroyed or removed, leaving only a few behind. It’s as if ten toys were on the table, and nine were taken away, leaving just one.

MEANING: The act of destroying or removing a large portion of something (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: des-uh-may-shuhn

SYNONYMS: Destruction, Devastation, Annihilation, Slaughter, Ruination

1. The disease led to the decimation of the population.
2. The hurricane caused the decimation of the coastal area.
3. Economic crisis led to the decimation of jobs in the industry.
4. The army’s defeat was near decimation.


WORD-5: Austerity

CONTEXT: the powerful appeal is of a country whose economic crisis has been so long-standing that is allows someone like Mr. Milei to come and say, everyone has let you down and 40 years of austerity measures periodically by the International Monetary Fund have made your lives terrible.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Austerity is like when you have to be very careful with your things or money, using them only for what’s really necessary. It’s like saving your allowance instead of buying toys.

MEANING: Sternness or severity in manner or attitude; also, extreme plainness and simplicity in style or appearance (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: aw-stair-uh-tee

SYNONYMS: Severity, Strictness, Frugality, Simplicity, Asceticism

1. The government’s austerity measures were unpopular.
2. She lived a life of austerity and simplicity.
3. Austerity in the budget meant cutting back on expenses.
4. The room’s austerity was evident in its lack of decoration.

WORD-6: Preliminary

CONTEXT: Our preliminary research suggests that you need three things: a narrative of being a strong democratic leader; a clear message of being secular and not ethno-nationalistic; and perhaps attending to welfare goals.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Preliminary is like something that comes first, before the main event. It’s like having a small quiz before a big exam to get ready for it.

MEANING: Preceding or done in preparation for something fuller or more important (adjective).

PRONUNCIATION: pre-lim-in-air-ee

SYNONYMS: Initial, Introductory, Preparatory, Preliminary, Provisional

1. The preliminary results of the study were promising.
2. They had a preliminary meeting before the main conference.
3. The athletes competed in the preliminary rounds.
4. Preliminary discussions were held before the agreement.


WORD-7: Presentist

CONTEXT: One of the dangers of any political commentary is that we have a presentist bias.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Presentist is when someone thinks or talks about the past as if it were like today. It’s like saying people in olden times should have had smartphones, which they didn’t.

MEANING: An attitude toward the past dominated by present-day attitudes and experiences (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: pre-zen-tist

SYNONYMS: Contemporary, Modernist, Current-day, Today’s, Recent

1. His presentist view of history ignores the context of that era.
2. The historian was criticized for her presentist interpretation.
3. Avoiding a presentist perspective is important in historical analysis.
4. The article showed a presentist bias in judging historical events.


WORD-8: Authoritarianism

CONTEXT: In the 1970s, Latin America saw a collapse of democratic systems and the rise of bureaucratic authoritarianism.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Authoritarianism is like when someone in charge wants to make all the decisions without listening to others. It’s like a teacher who doesn’t let anyone talk or give ideas.

MEANING: The enforcement or advocacy of strict obedience to authority at the expense of personal freedom (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: aw-thor-ih-tair-ee-uh-niz-um

SYNONYMS: Dictatorship, Totalitarianism, Tyranny, Autocracy, Despotism

1. The country suffered under the rule of authoritarianism.
2. Authoritarianism in the organization stifled creativity.
3. The leader’s authoritarianism was opposed by many.
4. His style of management was criticized for its authoritarianism.



WORD-9: Volatility

CONTEXT: In 2008, Pradeep Chhibber and I found that Indian States that have less fiscal space experienced higher electoral volatility and higher rates of anti-incumbency.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Volatility is like when things can change very quickly and unpredictably. It’s like the weather being sunny one minute and rainy the next.

MEANING: The quality of being subject to frequent, rapid, and significant change or unpredictability (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: vol-uh-til-uh-tee

SYNONYMS: Unpredictability, Changeability, Instability, Inconsistency, Fluctuation

1. The stock market is known for its volatility.
2. The political volatility in the region is worrisome.
3. Economic volatility affects global markets.
4. The volatility of his mood made him unpredictable.


WORD-10 Antiquity

CONTEXT. the Yangtze is modern China’s lifeline while retaining its antiquity.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Antiquity is like things that are very, very old, like castles or old coins. It’s like something from a long time ago, even before your grandparents were born.

MEANING: The ancient past, especially the period before the Middle Ages (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: an-tik-wuh-tee

SYNONYMS: Ancient times, Olden days, Classical period, Early history, Bygone era

1. The museum’s collection of antiquity is impressive.
2. She has a deep interest in the art of antiquity.
3. The ruins are a testament to the engineering skills of antiquity.
4. His study focuses on the philosophies of antiquity.



Vocabulary Words with Meaning

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