Daily Vocabulary from ‘The Hindu’: February 17, 2024

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Daily Vocabulary Words: List of Daily Used Words
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WORD-1: Restrained

CONTEXT: the principal Opposition party of the country finds itself restrained by a central agency.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine wanting to run around and shout because you’re so excited, but instead, you sit quietly and keep your excitement inside. That’s being restrained. It’s when you control your actions or feelings and not show them too much.

MEANING: Characterized by holding back or controlling one’s actions or emotions (adjective).


SYNONYMS: controlled, reserved, moderate, subdued, conservative, temperate, constrained

1. Her response to the criticism was calm and restrained.
2. He showed restrained excitement about the news.
3. The decorations were elegant and restrained.
4. She admired his restrained manner during the meeting.

WORD-2: Stalling

CONTEXT: Stalling the bank account of the Opposition, regardless of the Income-Tax department’s allegations, cannot be viewed as routine law enforcement.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Think about when you’re asked to clean your room but keep finding other things to do instead, like playing or reading. That’s stalling. It’s when you delay doing something because you don’t want to do it right away.

MEANING: Delaying or causing to delay in taking action or starting (verb).


SYNONYMS: delaying, procrastinating, hesitating, dawdling, dragging one’s feet, temporizing, dithering

1. He kept stalling to avoid answering the difficult question.
2. The project was stalled by unforeseen problems.
3. She stalled for time by asking irrelevant questions.
4. The negotiations were stalling due to lack of agreement.

WORD-3: Arbitrariness

CONTEXT: Article 19 refers to the right to information, and Article 14 to the right to equality, where arbitrariness in law is not permissible.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine if the rules for a game changed every time you played, and only one friend decided what the new rules were without explaining why. That would feel unfair, right? That’s arbitrariness. It’s when decisions are made randomly without a clear reason or rule.

MEANING: The quality of being determined by chance, whim, or impulse rather than by necessity or reason (noun).

PRONUNCIATION: ahr-BI-trair-ee-ness

SYNONYMS: randomness, capriciousness, whim, unpredictability, inconsistency, fickleness, despotism

1. The arbitrariness of the decision frustrated everyone involved.
2. They criticized the arbitrariness of the company’s policies.
3. The law aims to reduce the arbitrariness in sentencing.
4. His arbitrariness in choosing employees led to dissatisfaction.


WORD-4: Patenting

CONTEXT: Patenting, or an exclusive monopoly for a fixed number of years to originators and a reciprocal right by governments to issue directions for ‘compulsory licensing,’ thereby selectively breaking such monopolies in the interest of public health, has brokered the peace and sustained the global pharma industry for decades.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine you invent a new kind of toy that no one else has thought of. To make sure no one else can say it was their idea, you get a special paper called a patent. Patenting is when you protect your invention so only you can make or sell it.

MEANING: The action of obtaining a patent (a government authority or license) for an invention, which provides the inventor exclusive rights to the invention (noun).


SYNONYMS: licensing, securing, registering, protecting, copyrighting, trademarking, monopolizing

1. Patenting his invention was the first step toward starting his business.
2. The process of patenting a product can be complex and time-consuming.
3. She is considering patenting her software to prevent copying.
4. Patenting their technology gave the company a competitive edge.


WORD-5: Incubate

CONTEXT: India must invest substantially more in fundamental research to incubate the local drug industry into the future.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Think about when you see a bird sitting on its eggs to keep them warm until they hatch. That bird is incubating the eggs. Incubate means to keep something warm and safe so it can grow, like ideas or projects, until they’re ready to come out into the world.

MEANING: To maintain something under conditions favorable for growth or development (verb).


SYNONYMS: nurture, brood, hatch, cultivate, foster, develop, germinate

1. The scientist incubated the bacteria to study its growth.
2. They incubated the eggs in a warm environment.
3. The program is designed to incubate small businesses.
4. She needed time to incubate her ideas before sharing them.

WORD-6: Efficacy

CONTEXT: Under this provision, all the clinical-trial data that concerns the safety and efficacy of a drug generated by the originator firm becomes proprietary and out of bounds for a minimum period of six years.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine you have a magic wand that can clean your room super fast. If it works really well and your room gets clean every time you use it, that’s called efficacy. It means something does a good job at what it’s supposed to do.

MEANING: The ability to produce a desired or intended result (noun).


SYNONYMS: effectiveness, efficiency, potency, power, capability, success, productivity

1. Researchers are studying the efficacy of the new drug.
2. The efficacy of the marketing strategy was impressive.
3. Doubts were raised about the efficacy of the policies.
4. The vaccine’s efficacy in preventing disease is high.


WORD-7: Unscathed

CONTEXT: There is little chance that any government, let alone one that has not won the popular vote, will emerge from this process unscathed. The only way forward is for political parties to forge a common economic agenda.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine going through a big, scary adventure in the woods, with lots of obstacles, but coming back home without a single scratch or bruise. That means you came back unscathed. It’s when you go through a tough situation but end up perfectly okay, without any harm.

MEANING: Not harmed, injured, or damaged in any way (adjective).


SYNONYMS: unharmed, unhurt, undamaged, intact, whole, safe, untouched

1. Despite the accident, she emerged unscathed.
2. The book survived the fire unscathed.
3. They were lucky to walk away unscathed after the earthquake.
4. His reputation remained unscathed by the scandal.


WORD-8: Embattled

CONTEXT: the Court’s glowing reference to the Places of Worship (Special Provisions) Act, 1991 was like applying a little balm to an embattled soul.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine a castle surrounded by enemies, ready to defend itself from attack. That castle is embattled. When someone or something is embattled, it means they are having a lot of problems or fighting against something really hard.

MEANING: Involved in or prepared for war, conflict, or struggle, especially facing criticism or opposition (adjective).


SYNONYMS: besieged, under siege, beleaguered, troubled, assailed, contested, disputed

1. The embattled CEO faced criticism from all sides.
2. He stood firm as an embattled leader during the crisis.
3. The embattled city held out against the siege.
4. Her position as chairperson became increasingly embattled.


WORD-9: Non-retrogression

CONTEXT: The Places of Worship Act is thus a legislative intervention which preserves non-retrogression as an essential feature of our secular values.”

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine you’re climbing a hill and you make a rule for yourself that you’re only going to go up, not back down. That’s like non-retrogression. It means not going backwards or not getting worse, always trying to keep the progress you’ve made.

MEANING: The principle or practice of not reverting to a previous, less advanced state or condition (noun).


SYNONYMS: progress, advancement, forward movement, improvement, development, progression, non-regression

1. The policy ensures non-retrogression in environmental standards.
2. Human rights laws are based on the principle of non-retrogression.
3. The government pledged non-retrogression in healthcare benefits.
4. Advocates stress the importance of non-retrogression in educational reforms.

WORD-10: Apprehensions

CONTEXT: the top court expressed its apprehensions over the provisions of the Act being flouted.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine you’re about to go on stage for a play and you feel nervous and worried about forgetting your lines. Those feelings are apprehensions. It’s when you’re uneasy or scared about something that might happen in the future.

MEANING: A feeling of fear or anxiety about something that might happen (noun).


SYNONYMS: anxieties, fears, concerns, misgivings, doubts, worries, unease

1. She had some apprehensions about moving to a new city.
2. His apprehensions about the surgery were understandable.
3. Despite her apprehensions, she performed well in the interview.
4. The news raised apprehensions about the safety of the area.



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