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Daily Vocabulary Words: List of Daily Used Words
Hi there. Welcome to this special section @ Wordpandit.
Our endeavour here is straightforward: highlighting important daily vocabulary words, you would encounter in The Hindu. This is your repository of commonly used words; essentially, we are posting a list of daily used words. Hence, this has significant practical application as it teaches you words that are commonly used in a leading publication such as The Hindu.
Visit the website daily to learn words from The Hindu.

WORD-1: PENAL

CONTEXT: The government, by introducing in the Lok Sabha three penal Bills which is says “aim to decolonise the Indian justice system,” has rightly exercised its prerogative. Earlier governments dithered over this move for years. However, in matters of law-making and reform, mere initiative may not be sufficient.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Penal” is a word related to punishments. Like when you break a rule in a game, and you might get a time-out or lose a turn. That’s a type of penal action because of the rule you broke.

MEANING: Related to punishment or penalties, often by law (Adjective).

PRONUNCIATION: PEE-nu

SYNONYMS: Punitive, Punishment, Disciplinary, Corrective, Retributive

USAGE EXAMPLES:
1. The penal code defines the punishments for crimes.
2. He was sent to a penal colony for his actions.
3. The penal system is under scrutiny.
4. There are penal consequences for tax evasion.

WORD-2: DECOLONISE

CONTEXT: The government, by introducing in the Lok Sabha three penal Bills which is says “aim to decolonise the Indian justice system,” has rightly exercised its prerogative. Earlier governments dithered over this move for years. However, in matters of law-making and reform, mere initiative may not be sufficient.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Decolonise” means to let a place be free after it was controlled by another country. Imagine if someone took your toy and later decided to give it back; that’s a bit like decolonising.

MEANING: To end the control or domination by a colonial power; to free from colonial status (Verb).

PRONUNCIATION: dee-KOL-uh-nize

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SYNONYMS: Liberate, Emancipate, Free, Unshackle, Release, Decontrol

USAGE EXAMPLES:
1. They fought to decolonise their country.
2. The movement to decolonise the continent gained momentum.
3. History books describe the efforts to decolonise nations.
4. It’s crucial to decolonise education and bring diverse perspectives.

WORD-3: PREROGATIVE

CONTEXT: The government, by introducing in the Lok Sabha three penal Bills which is says “aim to decolonise the Indian justice system,” has rightly exercised its prerogative. Earlier governments dithered over this move for years. However, in matters of law-making and reform, mere initiative may not be sufficient.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: Imagine you have a special toy that only you get to decide when to play with or share. That special right you have about the toy is called a “prerogative.” It’s a special right or privilege that certain people have because of their position or situation.

MEANING: A special right or privilege that belongs to a person or group in a particular social position (Noun).

PRONUNCIATION: pri-ROG-uh-tiv

SYNONYMS: Privilege, Right, Advantage, Entitlement, Benefit, Liberty, Exclusivity

USAGE EXAMPLES:
1. As the team captain, it’s her prerogative to choose the players.
2. Being able to make the final decision is a manager’s prerogative.
3. It’s my prerogative to change my plans if I want to.
4. Some believe it’s a celebrity’s prerogative to demand special treatment.

WORD-4: DITHERED

CONTEXT: The government, by introducing in the Lok Sabha three penal Bills which is says “aim to decolonise the Indian justice system,” has rightly exercised its prerogative. Earlier governments dithered over this move for years. However, in matters of law-making and reform, mere initiative may not be sufficient.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Dithered” means when you can’t make up your mind about something. Imagine you’re trying to choose between two candies, and you keep going back and forth because you can’t decide. That’s dithering!

MEANING: To be indecisive or uncertain; to act nervously (Verb).

PRONUNCIATION: DITH-erd

SYNONYMS: Hesitated, Vacillated, Wavered, Faltered, Fluctuated, Teetered

USAGE EXAMPLES:
1. She dithered between two choices.
2. The team dithered and lost precious time.
3. I wish I hadn’t dithered about buying the tickets.
4. He dithered so long that the opportunity was missed.

WORD-5: SUBSTANTIVE

CONTEXT: In this case, we need to particularly focus on three points. The first is that penal law-making and reform are serious issues which require deep deliberation and empirical validation. Second, we must keep in mind the diversity of considerations of substantive and procedural laws, and engage with the two sets separately. Substantive laws govern how people behave; they define criminal offences and specify punishment, whereas procedural laws are aimed at enforcement agencies that are to provide safeguards and due process even to the “worst” offenders. Third, we need to realise that penal laws are an instrument for actualising and propagating a wide variety of interests as per the constitutional vision and the dominant ideology. Which interests need protection and priority is a matter of democratic process. In view of these issues, let us analyse the Bharatiya Nyaya Sanhita Bill.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Substantive” means something is real, important, or meaningful. Like if you have a big, heavy toy truck, it’s more substantive than a tiny, light toy truck.

MEANING: Having a firm basis in reality; meaningful and on the subject (Adjective).

PRONUNCIATION: SUB-stan-tiv

SYNONYMS: Meaningful, Significant, Solid, Essential, Concrete, Fundamental

USAGE EXAMPLES:
1. The meeting led to substantive changes in the policy.
2. The report lacked substantive evidence.
3. The author presented substantive arguments in the book.
4. They had a substantive discussion about the project.

WORD-6: SAFEGUARDS

CONTEXT: In this case, we need to particularly focus on three points. The first is that penal law-making and reform are serious issues which require deep deliberation and empirical validation. Second, we must keep in mind the diversity of considerations of substantive and procedural laws, and engage with the two sets separately. Substantive laws govern how people behave; they define criminal offences and specify punishment, whereas procedural laws are aimed at enforcement agencies that are to provide safeguards and due process even to the “worst” offenders.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Safeguards” are like protective shields. They keep us safe from harm. Think of when you ride a bike, and you wear a helmet; that helmet is a safeguard for your head!

MEANING: Measures taken to prevent accidents or other undesirable outcomes (Noun).

PRONUNCIATION: SAFE-gards

SYNONYMS: Protections, Shields, Defenses, Precautions, Measures, Barriers

USAGE EXAMPLE:
1. The company implemented safeguards against data theft.
2. The park has safeguards to protect wildlife.
3. Safeguards were put in place to prevent accidents.
4. These regulations act as safeguards for consumers.

WORD-7: PROPAGATING

CONTEXT: …penal laws are an instrument for actualising and propagating a wide variety of interests as per the constitutional vision and the dominant ideology…

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Propagating” is like spreading or multiplying something. Imagine if you plant a flower, and then more and more flowers grow from it. You’re propagating flowers!

MEANING: To spread and promote an idea or species to a wider audience or area (Verb).

PRONUNCIATION: PROP-uh-gay-ting

SYNONYMS: Spreading, Disseminating, Multiplying, Promoting, Broadcasting, Expanding

USAGE EXAMPLE:
1. She is propagating a new method of teaching.
2. The plant is easily propagated by seeds.
3. The organization is propagating its message through social media.
4. He spent years propagating his theories.

WORD-8: ACTUALISING

CONTEXT: …penal laws are an instrument for actualising and propagating…

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Actualising” means making something real. Imagine you draw a house on paper and then build a real one just like it. You actualised your drawing!

MEANING: To make a concept or idea a reality (Verb).

PRONUNCIATION: AK-choo-uh-lize-ing

SYNONYMS: Realizing, Manifesting, Achieving, Materializing, Fulfilling, Implementing

USAGE EXAMPLE:
1. She is actualising her dream of becoming a doctor.
2. The project is in the phase of actualising the plans.
3. With hard work, he is actualising his potential.
4. The team is actualising the goals set for this year.

WORD-9: DOMINANT

CONTEXT: This was the most noteworthy challenge to the regime of Russian President Vladimir Putin ever since he took over power in 1999.

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Dominant” means the strongest or most powerful. Like in a group of kids, if one kid is always leading and deciding the games, that kid is dominant.

MEANING: Having the most power, influence, or authority (Adjective).

PRONUNCIATION: DOM-in-ant

SYNONYMS: Leading, Prevailing, Ruling, Predominant, Supreme, Principal

USAGE EXAMPLE:
1. Tigers are dominant predators in their environment.
2. The dominant color in the painting is blue.
3. The company has a dominant position in the market.
4. She has a dominant personality.

WORD-10: IDEOLOGY

CONTEXT: …penal laws are an instrument for actualising and propagating a wide variety of interests as per the constitutional vision and the dominant ideology…

SOURCE: The Hindu

EXPLANATORY PARAGRAPH: “Ideology” is like a big set of beliefs or ideas that people have about the world. It’s like when you believe that sharing toys is good, that’s a tiny part of an ideology about being kind.

MEANING: A system of ideas and beliefs, especially about society or politics (Noun).

PRONUNCIATION: eye-dee-OH-luh-jee

SYNONYMS: Beliefs, Doctrine, Philosophy, Principles, Creed, Ethos

USAGE EXAMPLE:
1. The political party has a clear ideology.
2. Her actions are based on her personal ideology.
3. The book explores various ideologies of the 20th century.
4. The ideology of equality is fundamental to many societies.

 

 

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