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Maxim, proverb, gnome, aphorism, apothegm, sententia–all mean the same thing: they represent a short, easily remembered expression of a basic principle, general truth, or rule of conduct. They are essentially nuggets of wisdom served to you in a short and sweet manner.  A few examples of maxims:
“The bigger the better”
“Good things come in small packages.”
“What’s good for the goose is good for the gander.”
“One man’s meat is another man’s poison.”
“Birds of a feather flock together.”
“Opposites attract.”
“Actions speak louder than words.”
“The pen is mightier than the sword.”
“You’re never too old to learn.”
“You can’t teach an old dog new tricks.”
“All good things come to those who wait.”
“Time and tide wait for no man.”
“Many hands make light work.”
“Too many cooks spoil the broth.”

Dictionary definition for maxim:
1. An expression of a general truth or principle, especially an aphoristic or sententious one. (noun)
2. A principle or rule of conduct. (noun)

Maxim in Context:
In the given context, the maxim, ‘Judge not, lest ye be judged’, means ‘one is in a position to condemn a sinner if they are without sin themselves’

The following is an extract from The Economic Times used for educational purposes:  While it is a bit too late in the day for the retired judge to take heed of the maxim of “Judge not, lest ye be judged” , he could perhaps reflect on the legal truism that “It is of fundamental importance that justice should not only be done but should be seen to be done.”

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