In this article, we provide you a short and effective summary for Percentages. We cover a list of 15 formulas and short-cuts that you can use for Percentage questions. The following is a list of important formulas for Percentage:

1. Percent implies “for every hundred”.
% is read as percentage and x % is read as x per cent.

2. To calculate p % of y
(p/100) x y = (p x y)/100

p % of y = y % of p

3. To find what percentage of x is y: y/x × 100

4. To calculate percentage change in value
Percentage change = {change/(initial value)} x 100

5. Percentage point change = Difference of two percentage figures

6. Increase N by S % = N( 1+ S/100 )

7. Decrease N by S % = N (1 – S/100)

8. If the value of an item goes up/down by x%, the percentage reduction/increment to be now made to bring it back to the original point is 100x/ (100 + x) %.

9. If A is x% more /less than B, then B is 100x/(100 + x) % less/more than A.

10. If the price of an item goes up/down by x %, then the quantity consumed should be reduced by 100x/ (100 + x)% so that the total expenditure remains the same.

11. Successive Percentage Change
If there are successive percentage increases of a % and b%, the effective percentage increase is:
{(a + b + (ab/100)}%

12. Percentage – Ratio Equivalence:  N is Numerator
D is the Denominator

13. Product Stability Ratio:
A × B = P
If A is increased by a certain percentage, then B is required to be decreased by a certain percentage to keep the product P stable.

Expressing the percentage figures in ratios: 