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Daily Vocabulary from The Hindu: August 13, 2019

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1. Pave the way
• To create a situation in which it is easier for someone to do something or something to happen.
Usage: Pioneers like Kalpana Chawla paved the way for women to have careers in the sciences.

2. Impetuous
• Acting or done quickly and without thought or care.
Usage: She might live to rue this impetuous decision.
Synonyms: impulsive, rash, hasty, overhasty.

3. Tailspin
• Become increasingly chaotic and out of control.
Usage: An economy tailspinning into chaos.

4. Cardinal
• Of the greatest importance.
• Fundamental.
Usage: Two cardinal points must be borne in mind.
• A cardinal is a leading bishop and prince of College of Cardinals in the Catholic Church. Their duties include participating in Papal consistories, and Papal conclaves, when the Holy See is vacant.
Usage: Histologically, no cardial brain abscesses show purulent exudate surrounded by variable amounts of fibrosis.

5. Top-down approach vs Bottom-up approach
• Top-down and bottom-up are both strategies of information processing and knowledge ordering, used in a variety of fields including software, humanistic and scientific theories, and management and organization. In practice, they can be seen as a style of thinking, teaching, or leadership.
• In the top-down approach, the complex module is divided into submodules. On the other hand, bottom-up approach begins with elementary modules and then combine them further.

6. Approbation
• Approval or praise.
Usage: However, Shakespeare’s attempts to locate himself within a literary tradition were not always met with such approbation.
Synonyms: approval, acceptance, assent, endorsement

7. Denudation
• In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth’s surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.
Usage: The forests in India, despite constant denudation, are still lovely, dark and deep and home to a host of wild species

8. Squabble
• Quarrel noisily over a trivial matter.
Usage: The boys were squabbling over a ball.
Synonyms: quarrel, row, argue, and bicker.

9. Assiduous
• Showing great care and perseverance.
Usage: She was assiduous in pointing out every feature of the new machine.
Synonyms: diligent, careful, meticulous, and thorough.

10. Appellation
• A name or title.
Usage: The Udaipur city fully justifies its appellation ‘City of Lake’.

11. Subaltern
• An officer in the British army below the rank of captain, especially a second lieutenant.

12. Abandonment rate
• In marketing, abandonment rate is a term associated with the use of virtual shopping carts. Also known as “shopping cart abandonment”.
• Although shoppers in brick and mortar stores rarely abandon their carts, abandonment of virtual shopping carts is quite common.
• Marketers can count how many of the shopping carts used in a specified period result in completed sales versus how many are abandoned.
• The abandonment rate is the ratio of the number of abandoned shopping carts to the number of initiated transactions or to the number of completed transactions.

13. Agile marketing
• Agile marketing is an organizational effectiveness strategy that uses self-organizing, cross-functional teams doing work in frequent iterations.
• It aims to drive growth by focusing team efforts on those that deliver value to the end-customer.
• This emerging practice in marketing applies selected principles of agile software development.

14. AIDA (marketing)
• AIDA is an acronym that stands for Attention or Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action.
• The AIDA model is widely used in marketing and advertising to describe the steps or stages that occur from the time when a consumer first becomes aware of a product or brand through to when the consumer trials a product or makes a purchase decision.

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