Daily Vocabulary from The Hindu: November 2, 2019

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1. Expansion and Contraction
• Economic contraction and expansion relate to the overall output of all goods and services. An expansion is characterized by increasing employment, economic growth, and upward pressure on prices. Following a peak, the economy typically enters into a correction which is characterized by a contraction where growth slows, employment declines (unemployment increases), and pricing pressures subside.

2. Mendacious
• One who tells lies habitually and intentionally. Intentionally false.
Usage: If an ad is mendacious, let the reader judge it as such.

3. Unenviable
• Difficult, undesirable, or unpleasant. So undesirable as to be incapable of arousing envy.
Usage: Instead, they created task forces of citizens who were given the unenviable job of trying to understand the environmental and fiscal impact of the roads.

4. Piecemeal
• Characterized by unsystematic partial measures taken over a period of time. When you do something piecemeal, you’re doing it little by little, but in a seemingly random way, with no order or system.
Usage: The village is slowly being killed off by piecemeal development.

5. Marshal
• Assemble and arrange in order. Make ready for action or use.
Usage: The general marshalled his troops.
• [In some countries] A military officer of highest rank
Usage: Patrick Baker was found guilty of killing a man and impersonating a U.S. Marshal during a robbery.

6. Felony
• A felony is a serious crime, like murder, arson, or burglary. The term felony originated from English common law, to describe an offense that resulted in the confiscation of a convicted person’s land and goods, to which additional punishments including capital punishment could be added. Other crimes were called misdemeanours.
Usage: Insurance fraud is a felony with serious penalties and consequences.

7. Recidivism
• The tendency of a convicted criminal to reoffend.
• It is also used to refer to the percentage of former prisoners who are rearrested for a similar offense.
Usage: The prison has succeeded in reducing recidivism.

8. Peter out
• To diminish gradually and stop. Dwindle to nothing. End weakly. To tire; exhaust.
Usage: I’m petered out after that walk.

9. Spillover
• Any indirect effect of public expenditure. In economics a spillover is an economic event in one context that occurs because of something else in a seemingly unrelated context. For example, externalities of economic activity are non-monetary spillover effects upon non-participants.
Usage: The spillovers of external demand slowdown and an associated decline in business investment are particularly evident in Europe.

10. Epigraphist
• A specialist in epigraphy. Epigraphy is the study of inscriptions, or epigraphs, as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.
Usage: His skill as an epigraphist made him a valued colleague on excavations.

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